The long-standing low-intensity conflict between parts of the Catalan society and the Spanish state came to an inflection point in the autumn of 2017.
Amid violent police repression, on October 1st Catalonia held a referendum on its independence from Spain even if Madrid’s government, led by the right-wing Partido Popular, had declared it illegal. Following the referendum results, on Oct 27th the Catalan parliament declared Catalonia an independent Republic, and the Spanish government responded removing from office the entire Catalan government. Immediately after, a court sentence jailed without bail several Catalan government members.
New Catalan elections held on Dec 21st 2017 substantially confirmed the result of the previous election, giving the majority of parliamentary seats to the sum of pro-independence parties.